Groovy vs Java: The main differences

As indicated by the most recent measurements from the TIOBE Programming Community Index, Java remains perhaps the most famous programming advancement dialect among proficient developers.

Despite the high popularity of Java development services, Stack Overflow survey data shows that there are a large number of developers who no longer want to use the language.

In this article, we’ll look at the major differences between Groovy and Java to see when it’s best to use each of the two languages.


Groovy is an item-arranged programming language created for the Java stage as an option in contrast to the Java language with highlights from Python, Ruby, and Smalltalk.

Groovy purposes Java-based language structure with a dynamic gathering to JVM bytecode and works straightforwardly with other Java code and libraries. The language can be utilized in any Java project or as a prearranging language. It is effectively utilized as a subject-arranged language for pre-arranging in the branch of knowledge (from math to logical information handling) concerning building and testing applications (Gradle).

Features of Groovy (distinguishing it from Java):

  • Static and dynamic typing
  • The built-in syntax for lists, associative arrays, arrays, and regular expressions
  • Short circuits
  • Overload operations

Moreover, the java code is almost always valid groovy code.


Java is a general-purpose programming language. It belongs to the object-oriented programming languages, languages with strong typing.

The creators implemented the WORA principle: “write once, run anywhere.” This means that an application written in Java can be run on any platform as long as the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is installed on it.

This problem is solved by compiling code written in Java into byte-code. This format is executed by the JVM or Java Virtual Machine. The JVM is part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE). The virtual machine is platform-independent.

As noted above, the syntax of Java is similar to that of other C-like languages. Here are some of its features:

  • Case awareness – User and user identifiers in Java are various elements;
  • For naming methods, lowerCamelCase is used. If a method name consists of one word, it must begin with a lowercase letter. Example: firstMethodName();
  • UpperCamelCase is used for naming classes. If the name consists of one word, it must start with a capital letter. Example: FirstClassName.
  • The name of the program files must exactly match the name of the class, case-sensitive. For example, if the class name is FirstClassName, the file should be called;
  • Identifiers always start with a letter (A-Z, a-z), a $ sign, or the underscore _;

For instance, by far, most huge organizations use Java somehow. A ton of server applications for companies are written in this language. For example, we are talking about programs for financial institutions, which provide transactions, and recording of trade transactions.

Many web applications are written in Java. Popular frameworks, including Spring, Stuts, and JSP, are used to create various applications on the web: from e-commerce projects to large portals, from educational platforms to government resources. The famous PC game Minecraft is also written in Java.

Main differences

Complexity and Convenience

Java is a powerful and “heavyweight” language, which makes it quite difficult to use.

Groovy is a functional static and dynamic language based on the JVM that can simplify the Java development process.


Java can also be integrated with any object-oriented application because it is compatible with any JVM-based application.

Groovy can be integrated with any web and scripting application.


Java has a larger community called the Java Community Process, i.e., the JCP is supported by a large group of highly qualified technical experts in the industry.

Groovy was sent to JCP to request a specification.

Space for opportunity 

Java supports cross-platform operating systems.

Groovy supports any operating system or platform.


Groovy and Java are items situated in programming dialects, while Groovy likewise upholds a prearranging language. The necessity for a pre-arranged language alongside a programming language adds weight to Groovy. The decision of programming language relies upon the usefulness and highlights required for an application to work by successfully picking a split the difference.